Numbers in JavaScript

JavaScript Numbers can be integers (exp 3) or whole numbers ( exp 3.14). JavaScript Numbers can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and Modulus. Thus all arithmetic operations can be performed using javascript numbers.

JavaScript Supports all numbers systems, including Binary , Octal, Decimal and Hexadecimal numbers. A number starting with 0 is by-default octal in JavaScript. For example 010 is 8 in javascript.

var is used to declare numbers in JavaScript.

For fixed numbers, const is also used.

typeof operator can check datatype of numbers.


 var a=3;          // number; 
 var b=3.6;        // number with decimal; 
 var c=2e3;        // exponential number (2000)
 var d=0xa;        // number in hexadecimal 
 var e=010;        // number in octal
 var f=0o10;       // number in octal
 var g=0b100;      // number in binary
 var h=NaN;        // not a number
 var i=Infinity;   // number more than 10308
 


Binary, Octal, Decimal and Hexadecimal Numbers Comparision

Here is a comparison of Binary numbers, Octal numbers, Decimal numbersand Hexadecimal numbers.

Number Binary
(0-1)
(2 bit)
Octal
(0-7)
(8 bit)
Decimal
(0-9)
(10 bit)
Hexadecimal
(0-f)
(16 bit)
0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
2 10 2 2 2
8 1000 10 8 8
10 1010 12 10 a
15 1111 17 15 f
16 10000 20 16 10

Numbers Method

Numbers Methods are used to convert a number to string, exponential, precision and fixed. Here are number methods with example.

JavaScript Number Methods
MethoduseExample
toString()convert number to string.var x=6;
x.toString()="6";
toLocalString()convert number to local string.var x=6;
x.toLocalString()="6";
toExponential()convert decimal to exponential notation.var x=6;
x.toExponential()="6e+0";
toPrecision(1)convert number to Precise .var x=1.23456;
x.toPrecision(1)="1";
toPrecision(2)convert decimal to exponential notation.var x=1.23456;
x.toPrecision(2)="1.2";
toPrecision(3)convert decimal to exponential notation.var x=1.23456;
x.toPrecision(3)="1.23";
toFixed() to convert a number to string with fixed decimal value var pi=3.1416;
pi.toFixed(); // "3"
pi.toFixed(1); // "3.1"
pi.toFixed(2); // "3.14"
pi.toFixed(3); // "3.142"

String to Number in javascript

Javascript variables can be strings or numbers. Like var x="5" is string, but var y=5 is number. Both can be used in arithmetic operations. Except addition, all arithmetic operations are possible with x and y.

Functions to convert string to number.


Number Function

Number Function can convert string to numbers. Number Function can convert both floating/decimal and non-floating/integers. But if a string contains string character like alphabets or special character, number function will return NaN.


    var a="100";
    var b="100.5";
    var c="100px";
    var d="abc100";
    
    Number(a)       //100
    Number(b)       //100.5
    Number(c)       //NaN - Not a Number
    Number(d)       //NaN - Not a Number
    

parseInt Function

parseInt Function can convert string to numbers, but non-floating/integers values only. parseInt can also convert binary, octal and hexadecimal to decimal numbers.


    var a="100";
    var b="100.5";
    var c="100px";
    var d="abc100";
    
    parseInt(a)       //100
    parseInt(b)       //100
    parseInt(c)       //100
    parseInt(d)       //NaN - Not a Number
    

parseInt function is also used to convert decimal to binary, decimal to octal and decimal to hexadecimal numbers. To do this, pass second parameter in parseInt function as 2 for binary, 8 for octal, and 16 for hexadecimal. See example.


    var a=100;
    
    parseInt(a,2)     //4, binary number
    parseInt(a,8)     //64, octal number
    parseInt(a,10)    //100, decimal number
    parseInt(a,16)    //256, hexadecimal number     
    

parseFloat Function

parseFloat Function can convert string to numbers, floating/decimals and non-floating/intergers both. parseFloat can also convert binary, octal and hexadecimal to decimal numbers.


    var a="100";
    var b="100.5";
    var c="100px";
    var d="100.5px";
    var e="abc100";
    
    parseFloat(a)       //100
    parseFloat(b)       //100.5
    parseFloat(c)       //100
    parseFloat(d)       //100.5
    parseFloat(e)       //NaN - Not a Number
    

isNaN, is Not a Number Function

JavaScript isNaN function returns a boolean value. For example, isNaN("2") is false and isNaN("a") is true. Even isNaN(NaN) is also true.


    isNaN(NaN)                      // returns true
    isNaN(1)                        // returns false
    isNaN("1")                      // returns false
    isNaN("a")                      // returns true
    isNaN("2a")                     // returns true

isFinite

isFinite function tells whether a number is finite or not. In JavaScript, number greater than 1e308 or 1e+308 are finite numbers. Number greater than 1e308 are Infinite, for example 2e308 and more are infinite numbers in JavaScript.


    isFinite(Infinity)             // false
    isFinite(2e308)                // false
    isFinite(1e308)                // true
    isFinite(1e307)                // true
    isFinite(123)                  // true

  1. Never starts a number with 0.
  2. Floating numbers can have maximum 16 characters after decimal.
  3. Binary i.e.0b100 and Octal 0o100 are not supported in all browsers.