Apache hive was introduced by Facebook firstly. Later on it is used and developed by Apache. It is used to analysis the data stored in HDFS.
It is data warehouse tool which provides SQL like language i.e HiveQL to process data efficiently using queries. It is used to process structured data efficiently using queries which is very easy to write and understand like SQL.
It reduces the complexity of map reduce by providing the processing of HDFS data using SQL like queries.
As we have data types in sql to create schema similarly we have data types in hive too. Hive supports both primitive and complex type of data types:-Primitive Data type in Hive
For any query you can send mail at firstname.lastname@example.org Thanks